Settled landscapes are defined as all developed lands in urban and rural settings i.e. residential, recreational, commercial, production, transportation and industrial lands (IPCC 2006, ECCC 2017). Some examples of settlements include land along streets, in public and private gardens, in golf courses and athletic fields, and in parks. While urban areas belong to the settled land use category, land uses within settled lands are not homogeneous. 

Urban forest compositio, structure and fucntion vary across urban areas and urban land uses such as parks, streets, residential and natural areas. Land ownership of urban trees is generally split between public and private lands with about 70-80% being privately owned. In addition, urban forest management is two-fold and occurs at single tree and stand levels (forest patch, woodlands). Urban natural areas and woodlands, though predominantly owned by the cities, span from public to private lands and in fact should be considered as a separate urban forest component. 
Urban tree composition, structure and function vary across the urban forest components within settled area boundaries.

Urban Forest Component

Urban forest management based on

Public or Private Ownership


Street Trees

Single tree

Public (municipally owned)

Street trees, trees on boulevards, median trees, trees on the right of ways

Park Trees

Single tree

Public (municipally owned)

A tree within a City park or public garden managed as single trees

Residential Trees

Single tree and Forest stand (e.g. Woodlot, natural areas) 


Trees in residential areas managed mainly as single trees by homeowners.

Institutional Trees

Single tree and Forest stand (e.g. Woodlot, natural areas)

Private and Public; Predominantly private

Cemeteries, golf courses, industrial lands, commercial lands, marginal lands, botanical gardens, university, colleges and school lands; other institutions.

Urban Natural Areas

Forest stand (e.g. Woodlot, natural areas)

Public and Private

Natural areas, woodlands, forested ravines, swamps, plantations, county forests, private woodlots